Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM): Steps for Integrated Water Resources Management:

Entry Points for Integrated Water Resource Management

The GWP (2009a) identified three main entry levels for IWRM:

  1. Local level (i.e. sub-basin plan, local aquifer management plan, local government plan)
  2. Implementation level (basin or provincial scale management plan)
  3. Policy level (national and international processes for developing water policies, treaties and laws)

Examples of entry points for IWRM in the Orange-Senqu River basin are outlined below. Please see Governance Stakeholders to learn more about entry points for IWRM in the Orange-Senqu basin.

Box: Entry Points for IWRM in the Orange-Senqu River basin

Local Level:

In Botswana, the Ministry of Local Government and Lands has the responsibility for the operation of water supply to the rural villages through the District Councils (ORASECOM 2007j).

In Lesotho, the Local Government Act (1997) provides for local government structures to eventually take responsibility for the delivery of water services, including the Water and Sewage Authority, the Lesotho Lowlands Project Unit, and the Lesotho Highlands Development Authority (ORASECOM 2007j).

"In Namibia, the concept of management of water resources and water services at local level is being implemented by the Ministry of Agriculture, Water and Forestry, through the Community Based Management Programme (CBM) and basin management approach (BMA). According to the MAWF’s Water Supply and Sanitation Sector Policy of 1993, the CBM strategy involves broad participation of user in water supply services and management by means of Water Point Associations, their representative Water Point Committees and Local Water Associations with Local Water Point Committees, while the BMA creates an opportunity for communities to be involved in water and natural resources management at basin level by establishing basin management committees." (Amakali 2009)

In South Africa, there is an on-going devolution of responsibilities in the context of the NWA and NWRS from national to local government and community-based organisations (ORASECOM 2007j). At catchment level Catchment Management Agencies are being established and at local level Water User Associations and Water Service Authorities are being set up.

Implementation Level:

SADC promotes the development of River Basin Management Plans based on economic, environmental and social analysis and attempt to balance economic development amongst Member States (SADC 2007).

Policy Level:

All Orange-Senqu Basin countries have signed United Nations Convention on the Law of the Non-Navigational Uses of International Watercourses (UN Convention) and the Revised Protocol on Shared Watercourses in the Southern African Development Community (2000). The SADC Regional Water Policy and Strategy is founded on the principle of Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM).


Expert focus groups are a useful approach at the local level.
Source:Reed 2009
( click to enlarge )