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Water Demand in the Basin: Urban and Rural Consumption:

Upper Orange-Senqu River Basin

   

In Lesotho, urban usage is mainly domestic, and supply relies heavily on direct river extraction and groundwater. In recent years, the rapid economic development in the Lesotho lowlands, and the associated increase in urban and peri-urban populations and commercial/industrial activities, has placed increasing pressure on the existing water supply and sewerage facilities. In districts other than the Maseru district, 70–100 % of the population lives in rural areas.

In the South African portion of the Upper Orange basin, the bulk of the urban requirements of the Upper Orange Water Management Area (WMA) are from the Bloemfontein and Botshabelo areas. Towns in the Water Management Area are supplied by Bloem Water or have allocations from nearby large inter-basin transfer schemes. Other towns are located close to the main river or have access to water from upstream storage dams.

Table 1: Year 2000 urban water requirements in the Upper Orange Water Management Area.

Sub-Area

Urban Population

Domestic (direct)

Indirect

Urban losses

Total

 

Urban per capita domestic

Urban return flow

Mm³/a

l/c/d*

%

Senqu

0

1,6

0,0

0,5

2,1

 

na

0

Caledon Lesotho

0

15,1

0,8

5,9

21,8

 

na

10

Caledon RSA

50 235

2,3

0,9

1,1

4,3

 

125

38

Kraai

81 360

2,9

1,5

1,2

5,6

 

98

0

Riet/Modder

786 434

37,7

20,4

28,5

86,6

 

131

38

Vanderkloof

60 050

2,7

1,2

1,5

5,4

 

125

0

Total

978 079

62,3

24,8

38,7

125,8

 

175

29

l/c/d = litres per capita, per day
Source: DWAF 2003a

Table 2: Year 2000 rural water requirements in the Upper Orange Water Management Area.

Sub-Area

Rural Population

Domestic

Stock watering

Total

Rural human
per capita

Mm³/a

l/c/d*

Senqu

0

0,8

12,0

12,8

23

Caledon Lesotho

0

2,4

3,6

6,0

33

Caledon RSA

535 155

5,2

8,2

13,4

27

Kraai

619 413

5,7

7,0

12,7

25

Riet/Modder

65 876

0,6

9,7

10,3

25

Vanderkloof

19 468

0,6

9,7

10,3

25

Total

1 236 912

14,9

45,3

60,2

33

l/c/d = litres per capita, per day
Source: DWAF 2003a

 

Interactive

Explore the sub-basins of the Orange-Senqu River


Explore the water management systems around the basin - including intra-basin transfers and sectoral water requirements


Investigate the dams and water infrastructure in the Orange-Senqu basin


Tour video scenes along the Orange-Senqu River related to Meeting the Water Challenge


Listen to a panel discussion about the history and challenges in the Orange-Senqu basin


Explore how hydroelectric dams work


 
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